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  • Writer's pictureImmergity Immigration Consultant

Vulnerable Worker Open Work Permit

Vulnerable Worker Open Work Permit

Canada has a strong reputation for protecting workers' rights and promoting fair labor practices. One crucial aspect of this effort is the Vulnerable Worker Open Work Permit (VWOWP), which aims to protect foreign workers from exploitation and abuse.

What is a Vulnerable Worker Open Work Permit?

The Vulnerable Worker Open Work Permit is a special type of work permit designed to protect foreign workers who find themselves in vulnerable situations due to mistreatment or abuse by their employers. The VWOWP allows eligible workers to change employers without the need for a Labour Market Impact Assessment (LMIA) or a job offer.

The purpose of the VWOWP is to offer an escape route for foreign workers who are subjected to abuse, exploitation, or any form of mistreatment by their current employer. By providing a legal means to change employers, the VWOWP empowers workers to leave unhealthy work environments and seek better opportunities.

Eligibility Criteria for the VWOWP

To be eligible for a VWOWP, a foreign worker must meet specific criteria, such as:

  1. Be in Canada with a valid employer-specific work permit.

  2. Be in a vulnerable situation due to abuse or mistreatment by their employer.

  3. Demonstrate that leaving the employer would not result in a risk of further abuse or harm.

The types of workers who may qualify for the VWOWP include temporary foreign workers, live-in caregivers, and agricultural workers, among others. Vulnerable situations considered for the VWOWP include physical, psychological, sexual, or financial abuse, as well as violation of human or labor rights.

Application Process for the VWOWP

To apply for a VWOWP, a foreign worker must:

  1. Complete the required forms: Fill out the application form for a work permit made outside of Canada (IMM 1295) and the document checklist (IMM 5556).

  2. Gather supporting documents: Collect evidence to support the claim of abuse or mistreatment, such as medical records, police reports, and witness statements.

  3. Submit the application: Send the completed forms and supporting documents to Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) by mail.

  4. Pay the application fee: There is no fee for the VWOWP application. However, if the worker is applying for a new work permit, they may need to pay the standard work permit fee.

Processing times for the VWOWP may vary depending on the complexity of the case and the volume of applications received by the IRCC.

Rights and Restrictions for VWOWP Holders

Holders of a VWOWP have the same rights as other foreign workers in Canada, such as the right to a safe work environment, fair wages, and access to health care. They can work for any employer, with a few exceptions, without needing a job offer or an LMIA.

However, there are some limitations to the VWOWP. The permit is only valid for a specific duration, usually up to two years, and cannot be renewed indefinitely. Workers must either apply for a different type of work permit, extend their current work permit, or seek permanent residency before the VWOWP expires.

Tips for VWOWP Applicants

To improve the chances of a successful VWOWP application, consider the following tips:

  • Prepare a strong application: Gather strong evidence to support your claim of abuse or mistreatment, and ensure all required forms are completed accurately.

  • Seek help from professionals: Consult with immigration consultants, legal experts, or non-profit organizations that specialize in helping vulnerable workers.

  • Report abuse to authorities: It is essential to report any abuse or mistreatment to the appropriate authorities, such as the police or labor organizations, as this can strengthen your case.

  • Know your rights: Familiarize yourself with your rights as a foreign worker in Canada, as this knowledge will empower you to recognize and address abuse when it occurs.

  • Stay informed about updates: Keep track of any changes to the VWOWP program or other relevant immigration policies to ensure your application is up to date and compliant with current regulations.

Examples of abuse or risk of abuse in the context of employment

In the context of employment, abuse can take various forms and may include physical, emotional, psychological, or financial mistreatment. Here are some examples of abuse or risk of abuse in the workplace:

  1. Physical abuse: Physical violence, such as hitting, slapping, or pushing, can occur in the workplace. It also includes threats of physical harm, confinement, or withholding of basic necessities.

  2. Sexual abuse or harassment: Unwanted sexual advances, inappropriate touching, or coerced sexual acts fall under sexual abuse or harassment. It also includes making offensive comments or sharing explicit materials without consent.

  3. Psychological or emotional abuse: This type of abuse involves manipulation, humiliation, or belittling an employee. It can also include excessive criticism, bullying, or intentionally isolating an employee from their colleagues.

  4. Financial abuse: Employers may withhold wages, force employees to work unpaid hours, or deduct unreasonable amounts from their paychecks. Financial abuse may also include not providing appropriate compensation for overtime or denying legally mandated benefits.

  5. Workplace discrimination: Discrimination based on race, gender, sexual orientation, religion, or other protected characteristics can create a hostile work environment and is a form of abuse.

  6. Retaliation: Employers may punish employees for reporting abuse, filing complaints, or participating in investigations. This retaliation can manifest as demotions, reduced hours, or wrongful termination.

  7. Unsafe working conditions: Employers have a responsibility to ensure a safe work environment. Failure to provide adequate safety measures, training, or protective equipment can put workers at risk and be considered abuse.

  8. Exploitation of temporary foreign workers: Some employers may take advantage of foreign workers' unfamiliarity with local labor laws or fear of losing their work permit. This exploitation can involve underpayment, excessive working hours, or forcing workers to live in substandard housing.

Examples of Abuse

​Type of Abuse



Physical Abuse

​Use of physical force or threats of violence

​Hitting, slapping, pushing, threats of physical harm, confinement

Sexual Abuse or Harassment

​Unwanted sexual advances or offensive behavior

​Inappropriate touching, coerced sexual acts, offensive comments, sharing explicit materials without consent

​Psychological or Emotional

Manipulation, humiliation, or belittling

​Excessive criticism, bullying, intentional isolation, making fun of an employee

​Financial Abuse

​Withholding wages, unfair deductions, or exploitation of workers

​Forced unpaid work, unreasonable wage deductions, denying overtime pay or legally mandated benefits

​Workplace Discrimination

​Treating employees unfairly based on protected characteristics

Discrimination based on race, gender, sexual orientation, religion, or other protected characteristics


​Punishing employees for reporting abuse, filing complaints, or participating in investigations

​Demotions, reduced hours, wrongful termination, creating a hostile work environment

​Unsafe Working Conditions

​Failing to provide a safe work environment or appropriate safety measures

​Inadequate safety measures, lack of training, failure to provide protective equipment

​Exploitation of Foreign Workers

​Taking advantage of foreign workers' unfamiliarity with local labor laws or fear of losing work permit

​Underpayment, excessive working hours, forcing workers to live in substandard housing, not providing legally required benefits or breaks

How Can an Immigration Consultant Help?

  1. Expert Guidance: Navigating the immigration system can be complex. An immigration consultant in Mississauga, for instance, can provide clarity on the process, ensuring you understand every step.

  2. Documentation Assistance: The success of your application often hinges on the accuracy and completeness of your documentation. Consultants can guide you on what's needed, from proof of abuse to your employment history.

  3. Application Review: Before submitting your application for a work permit in Canada, having it reviewed by a professional can increase your chances of approval.

  4. Post-Approval Guidance: Once you receive your Vulnerable Worker Open Work Permit, you might have questions about your rights, finding new employment, or even pathways to permanent residency. A consultant can provide answers and guide your next steps.

Finding the Right Consultant

Mississauga, being a hub for immigration services, offers numerous options. However, it's crucial to find the best immigration consultant in Mississauga. Look for firms with a proven track record, like Immergity Immigration Consultant, known for their comprehensive visa assistance and work permit consultancy services.

Final Thoughts

The Vulnerable Worker Open Work Permit is more than just a document; it's a lifeline for many foreign workers in Canada. If you believe you qualify for this permit or know someone who might, don't delay. Reach out to a trusted immigration consultant and explore your options. Remember, everyone has the right to a safe and respectful work environment.

For more insights on Canadian immigration and work permits, click here for a range of resources and expert advice.

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